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Family History of Cancer

family-history

The KRAS-variant is an inherited genetic mutation associated with a family history of cancer, especially breast,1 ovarian,2 lung,3 as well as other cancers,4,5 and multiple cancers in the same individual.6,7

While BRCA is the most well-known and commonly tested genetic mutation for Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer (HBOC) families (i.e. those with multiple cases of breast and/or ovarian cancer on the same side of the family), it is also incredibly rare, found in only 0.25% of the population.

The KRAS-variant, in contrast, is found in 6-10% of the population, making it 20x more common than BRCA genetic mutations. If you have a family history of breast, ovarian or lung cancer, you are eligible for our studies as well as KRAS-variant testing. If you would like to join a study, please follow this link. You will be able to choose to get your KRAS-variant results at a discounted cost ($195) at the completion of the survey.  If you would prefer to directly order KRAS-variant testing at cost ($295) without joining a study, please follow this link. 

MiraKind’s research is focused on better understanding the lifestyle and environmental factors that impact cancer risk for KRAS-variant individuals so that they may make informed decisions to protect their health. Learn more about MiraKind’s open or future research studies that may be relevant to you.

brca-vs-kras

Because the KRAS-variant is primarily associated with cancer onset at or after menopause, learning whether you carry this inherited genetic mutation can help you make informed decisions about your health at many points in your life:

40s

Determine whether higher-level breast cancer screening, such as breast MRI, is something to consider in addition to annual mammograms. If having a hysterectomy and you are peri-menopausal, discuss the pros and cons of ovary removal with follow-up hormone replacement therapy (HRT) with your physician.

50s

Determine whether hormone replacement therapy at menopause could be protective against cancer if not otherwise contraindicated. Use the information to determine whether or not ovary removal makes sense for you at menopause.

60s

Be aware that an increased risk of ovarian cancer increases the importance of ongoing gynecological care. Determine whether continuing on hormone replacement therapy may be beneficial.

70s

Use your genetic information to ask for continued breast and gynecological screening. Determine whether continuing on hormone replacement therapy may be beneficial.

If you’d like more information, please read our learn section or understanding your results page.

By enrolling in a MiraKind study, you can join our efforts to identify cancer prevention and risk-reduction strategies for individuals with the KRAS-variant. Being a study participant is FREE, and you can choose to get your KRAS-variant results for $195.

community2

The MiraKind community brings together individuals with the KRAS-variant to share their stories, learn from one other, and offer support.  Learn more. 

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Family History of Cancer

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  1. Paranjape, T., Heneghan, H., Lindner, R., Keane, F., Hoffman, A., Hollestelle, A., Dorairaj, J., Geyda, K., Pelletier, C., Nallur, S., et al. (2011). A 3'-untranslated region KRAS variant and triple-negative breast cancer: a case-control and genetic analysis. Lancet Oncology 12, 377-386.
  2. Ratner, E., Lu, L., Boeke, M., Barnett, R., Nallur, S., Chin, L., Pelletier, C., Blitzblau, R., Tassi, R., Paranjape, T., et al. (2010). A KRAS-variant in Ovarian Cancer Acts as a Genetic Marker of Cancer Risk. Cancer Research 15, 6509-6515.
  3. Chin, L., Ratner, E., Leng, S., Zhai, R., Nullur, S., Babar, I., Muller, R., Straka, E., Su, L., Burki, E., et al. (2008). A SNP in a let-7 microRNA complementary site in the KRAS 3' untranslated region increases non-small cell lung cancer risk. Cancer Res 68, 8535-8540.
  4. Kazmi HR, Chandra A, Kumar S, Satyam LK, Gupta A, Nigam J, Srivastava M, Mittal B. (2016) A let-7 microRNA binding site polymorphism in the KRAS 3’UTR is associated with increased risk and reduced survival for gallbladder cancer in North Indian population. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2016 Sep 12. [Epub ahead of print]
  5. Gutiérrez-Malacatt H, Ayala-Sanchez M, Aquino-Ortega X, Dominguez-Rodriguez J, Martinez-Tovar A, Olarte-Carrillo I, Martinez-Hernandez A, C CC, Orozco L, Cordova EJ. (2016) The rs61764370 Functional Variant in the KRAS Oncogene is Associated with Chronic Myeloid Leukemia Risk in Women. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2016;17(4):2265-70.
  6. Pilarski, R., Patel, D., Weitzel, J., McVeigh, T., Dorairaj, J., Heneghan, H., Miller, N., Weidhaas, J., Kerin, M., McKenna, M., et al. (2012). A KRAS-variant is associated with risk of developing double primary breast and ovarian cancer. PLos ONE 7, e37891.
  7. McVeigh TP, Jung SY, Kerin MJ, Salzman DW, Nallur S, Nemec AA, Dookwah M, Sadofsky J, Paranjape T, Kelly O, Chan E, Miller N, Sweeney KJ, Zelterman D, Sweasy J, Pilarski R, Telesca D, Slack FJ, Weidhaas JB. (2015) Estrogen withdrawal, increased breast cancer risk and the KRAS-variant. Cell Cycle. 2015;14(13):2091-9. doi: 10.1080/15384101.2015.1041694. Epub 2015 May 11.